Research conducted on more than 200 men’s and women’s handball players (senior and youth categories) by our coaches Krešimir Pažin and Robert Papić

“I would rather know what sort of person has a disease

than what sort of disease a person has.”

– Hippocrates –


The hip joint is a spherical joint consisting of the head of the femur (caput femoris) and the cup of the pelvis. The bodies of the pubic, iliac, and sciatic bones form the acetabulum. Movements in the joint can be divided on the basis of 3 main axes: transverse axis – flexion movements (regular range of motion 130° – 140°) and extensions (10°), sagittal axis – abduction movements (30° – 45°) and adductions (20° – 30°) and vertical axis – internal rotations (36°) and external rotations (13°).

Internal and external rotation increase significantly with hip and knee flexion of 90°, when internal rotation is 40 to 50° and external rotation is 30 to 45°.

(Uršula Fabijanić, Treatment of Hip Dysplasia in Adulthood, Zagreb, 2017). 

20 or 30 years ago, children and young handball players spent a few hours a day in free play, mostly outdoors, when they were growing up.

They were engaged in activities which were varied (climbing, jumping, crawling, falling, catching etc.) and mostly low or medium in intensity with an extremely high number of repetitions if we take into account the hours spent in the game through a period of growing up of about 15 years.

As what we do, in addition to genetic predispositions, shapes our body, such a wide range of different movements allows the body to adapt to different requirements and thus independently adjust the imbalances in the body. 

Today, due to a sedentary lifestyle conditioned by cultural change,

most children do not have the opportunity to go through this type of adjustment.

If we add to this the fact that children are nowadays involved in organised sports 7-8 years earlier than 20 years ago (today at the age of 6, and sometimes at 13 or 14), the ratio of the total number of hours spent in free play and handball changes significantly on the handball side.

As a result, young athletes are more susceptible to morphological and functional changes due to specific handball requirements.

Clubs participated in conducting the research: RK ”Metalac”, RK ”Lokomotiva” and RK ”Maksimir”

and the prevention program was made in collaboration with ”Prirodan Pokret”